Prevalence and risk factors for Cisplatin nephrotoxicity in adult cancer in-patients in a tertiary hospital

Arlene Crisostomo, Rodellenn Consignado. MD

Background: Cisplatin is an antineoplastic drug commonly used in cancer therapy. Nephrotoxocity is one of its limiting side effects and occurs in about 28% of patients who receive the drug. This study aims to determine the prevalence of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its associated risk factors among adult cancer patients in a tertiary hospital.

Methods: Records of adult cancer patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy and admitted at St. Luke’s Medical Center from January 2011 to December 2012 were reviewed. Glomerular filtration rate at baseline and after cisplatin therapy were calculated to determine acute kidney injury (AKI). Logistic regression was used to determine association of risk factors.

Results: A total of 53 patients were included with 233 cases of cisplatin exposures. Acute kidney injury was present in 34 (14.6%) post-cisplatin chemotherapy cases. Odds ratio of cycle frequency (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.34-1.95), cisplatin dose (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.32-1.48), age (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.52-2.24) and gender (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.40-1.75) showed no significant association with acute kidney injury.

Conclusion: No significant risk factors were associated with acute kidney injury, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and anemia. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are recommended.